• American Society of Media Photographers
  • American Society of Picture Professionals
  • National Association of Freelance Photographers (USA)
  • National Press Photographers Association (USA)
  • White House News Photographers’ Association (USA)
  • World Press Photographers


Digital cameras and photo editing software enable more opportunity to manipulate photos.

Here are key statements from Paragraph 4 of the National Press Photographers Association ethics code (at

"In documentary photojournalism, it is wrong to alter the content of a photograph in any way (electronically or in the darkroom) that deceives the public. We believe the guidelines for fair and accurate reporting should be the criteria for judging what may be done electronically to a photograph."

The reference to "documentary photojournalism" is apparently intended to allow for photo illustrations.

Whether a photo illustration is acceptable can hinge on whether it is obvious that the image is not accurate.

External links